The polyurethane drying time should be somewhere within time frames from the packaging of your product. At least if the product itself is fine, and you followed the rules of putting it down. But, quite, unfortunately, our world is far from being an ideal place.
So let’s take a look at the inside of a polyurethane drying process, factors affecting polyurethane drying, and some other useful bits of information that will prepare you for almost everything that may happen while polyurethane drying, including how to make polyurethane to dry faster.
- 1 What’s the difference between drying and curing?
- 2 How long does polyurethane take to dry, regarding its type?
- 3 How long does polyurethane take to dry in various conditions?
- 3.1 Do features of a surface affect polyurethane drying time?
- 3.2 How long does polyurethane take to dry with different applications?
- 3.3 How much time does polyurethane take to dry due to its gloss type?
- 3.4 Ambient conditions
- 4 Q&A bit
- 4.1 What should I do with polyurethane to dry it faster?
- 4.2 Is polyurethane good for hardwood floors?
- 4.3 How long does it take to cure polyurethane?
- 4.4 How long to let polyurethane dry before applying another coat?
- 4.5 How long does it take oil-based polyurethane to dry?
- 4.6 What to do if poly isn’t drying too long?
- 4.7 How to determine when poly is dry?
- 5 Final words. Now you know how long does polyurethane take to dry
What’s the difference between drying and curing?
Understanding the fundamental differences between drying and curing will greatly assist in making estimates of how long does polyurethane take to dry. And yes, drying and curing are different processes.
Polyurethane cure time greatly depends on the components of a given product and various ambient conditions. So let us start with a brief look at some components that are present in every stain.
Info bit: Polyurethane is the name for a whole class of organic polymers. When it comes to woodworking, polyurethane or polyurethane finish is the common name for topcoats that are usually used to make a protective and decorative cover on a piece of wood furniture. Polyurethane wood floors, tabletops, and countertops are popular now.
Main components of polyurethane
Unlike your kitchen sponge or a sole of a rubber boot, woodworking polyurethane comes in liquid form. Each product contains:
- A vehicle (water or a solvent).
- A certain mixture of polyurethane resin and additives for modifying the physical or chemical properties of a product.
- Stain varnishes also contain some pigments or dyes suspended or dissolved into the mixture.
A vehicle is a substrate that provides the viscosity needed to spread a polyurethane topcoat over a surface that is being coated. It may be water or some kind of solvent. It evaporates after applying a coat, leaving a layer of other components that will form a protective film.
There are two main types of such products differentiated by their substrate: oil-based polyurethanes and water-based polyurethanes.
Polyurethane resin is the common component for topcoats of each brand. It can also contain various additives that promote curing, increase hardness, provide a given type of sheen, or serve other purposes.
On pigments and dyes
Pigments and dyes are not common for polyurethane topcoats. Mostly because topcoats of this kind usually don’t penetrate deep into the grain. The coloration of the wood itself usually looks better than the coloration of a semi-transparent topcoat.
Pro-tip: Components of a water-based polyurethane tend to separate over time. It is better to stir the tin thoroughly before use.
However, metallic additives can be present in water-based polyurethane and similar products. They have no colors and are put in there to speed up the drying and curing time.
What happens when polyurethane is drying?
Drying begins immediately after spreading the polyurethane over the surface. At its core, it is the evaporation of the vehicle component of the product.
Water or solvent is leaving the mixture and after that, the resin with its additives starts to cure.
Pro-tip: Always leave a so-called wet edge while covering the segments of the wood surface. It will help maintain the uniformity of the coat.
After all the vehicles had evaporated, the surface is still a bit tacky to touch as the resin is still curing.
Though, it is suitable for putting down the next layer of the water-based polyurethane or oil-based poly.
Be careful before at least partial curing of the coat, as it is still fragile. A semi-cured layer is prone to wrinkling and smudging.
Evaporating vehicles of oil-based polyurethanes may release volatile organic compounds and other fumes with a strong odor.
Always refer to the safety recommendations on the packaging of your product.
What happens when polyurethane is curing?
Curing occurs when the film-forming substances with all additives are reacting with the humidity in the ambient air of the following chemical processes within the film.
It becomes harder as molecules of the resin form strong bonds with each other. After initial curing, the surface is ready for light sanding and application of the next layer.
Complete curing is a long process that may require up to a month of time. However, the surface is usually ready for regular use no more than 72 hours after the application of the product and its initial drying.
Why does full curing take so long?
The hardening top layer of a coat obstructs contact of its inner portion with the surrounding air, thus prolonging the complete curing of the coat.
Info-bit: Polymerization of both oil-based poly and water-based polyurethane may cause a significant yellowing of the coat over time or as a result of exposure to ultraviolet. To prevent such coloration, try picking a product with respective additives.
The average times each one of the stages takes are as follows:
- It will take 30 minutes to 24 hours for polyurethane to dry.
- Initial curing time is around 8 hours after application.
- Normal use of an object is typically possible 24 to 72 hours after the last coat.
- The coat will become fully cured in 30 days.
So, drying and curing polyurethane are separate processes. Actual time frames are due to the type of product and various ambient conditions, as well as some other factors covered below.
How long does polyurethane take to dry, regarding its type?
The time that takes polyurethane to dry is determined by its components, ambient conditions, and features of the material.
Oil-based polyurethane usually dries longer than any water-based polyurethane. Mostly due to the rate of evaporation of a carrier liquid (vehicle).
Check the branding of your product. If polyurethane is branded as fast drying, it typically means that it dries a couple of hours faster.
Oil-based polyurethane varnishes have a thicker consistency. They have a certain type of oil as a substrate for polyurethane and its additives. With such a composition, only mineral spirits can serve as a vehicle.
Pro-tip: Dilute your oil-based polyurethane if you are planning to rub it on the surface of, for instance, hardwood floors. The thinner it is, the better the coverage. Up to 50% percent dilution is required to achieve needed consistency.
Oil-based polyurethane will take up to 24 hours for initial drying and no less than 48 hours for initial curing. But those are no more than some reference values, as ambient conditions and actual components of poly will affect the drying time.
Water-based polyurethane tends to dry faster. Water evaporates quicker than a solvent, leaving the film-forming substances to do their job. The rate of evaporation of a carrier liquid does not affect curing times. So, you may expect the same curing time as similar products.
Pro-tip: Use a respective type of dilution liquid to make your poly thinner. Water for water-based polyurethane and liquid solvent for oil-based polyurethane.
A fresh coat of water-based polyurethane will fill dry to the touch after 6 to 8 hours if nothing else is specified on its packaging. After that, you can lightly sand it, clean it up, and add a second coat. Initial curing will take around 24 hours.
Both oil-based polyurethane and water-based polyurethane are available in an aerosol form. It dries faster but not because of components but rather due to the thinness of a layer.
A decent part of the first layer will be absorbed by the wood, so it is always a great idea to spray one or two additional coats.
How long does polyurethane take to dry in various conditions?
Drying and curing times of a polyurethane coat vary under influence of various factors:
- features of the surface that’s being coated;
- the thickness of a coat;
- type of polyurethane and its sheen;
- ambient conditions.
The state of the product itself is a factor too. If your poly was sitting on a shelf for too long, it might lose its properties. Check the expiration date on the container. Expired polys tend to dry much longer than fresh ones.
If everything is OK, then prepare your surface, check the conditions in the workshop, and you’re ready to go.
Do features of a surface affect polyurethane drying time?
When it comes to evaluating the readiness of a surface for polyurethane sealer, first and foremost you should check if it’s dry, sanded, and clean. Wait for the stain to dry, if you got your piece stained. Take possible features of your type of wood into an account.
Type of wood
Rosewood, aromatic cedar, kingwood, santos mahogany, and other oily wood types cause troubles with the application of a sealer and gluing. The grain of the wood of such types is filled with natural oils that worsen the adhesion of polyurethane.
Without special treatment with solvents or additional sanding, the sealer just won’t stick to the surface. And when it will, the drying time will be longer.
It would be a great idea to make a test coat on a scrap piece. Knowing the way poly dries on a certain type of wood will save a lot of time in the long run.
Surface preparation and polyurethane drying time
Sanding is the best part of woodworking. Sand your piece of wood down with 300 grit to prepare the surface. Poly spreads evenly over lightly sanded wood. Also, the first coat will penetrate deeper into the wood, creating a better base for the second coat and the following ones.
Take a vac or a brush and clean the surface of any of the remaining sawdust and other particles. After all, you’re a woodworker, and we have to be thorough to make nice-looking stuff. Specs of dirt will get covered in poly and will destroy the coat and extend the drying time.
How long does polyurethane take to dry with different applications?
The rule of application is quite simple: the thicker coat will dry much longer. It is always better to make two or three thinner coats that will dry faster than one coat of similar thickness.
Also, thin layers of poly are good for leaving tactile wood texture, whereas thick coats produce a nice glass-looking layer. Wait 30 minutes to 2 hours before applying the second coat. It is the best way to get a nice-looking and durable coat.
Pro-tip: Pay extra attention to the nooks and crannies of your pieces’ surface. Poly may flow in grooves or between ridges and form a thicker area due to its surface tension. Such areas will extend overall polyurethane drying time.
How much time does polyurethane take to dry due to its gloss type?
The film-forming substances of a polyurethane topcoat consist of additives that provide various kinds of sheen.
These components alter the drying rate and viscosity of a poly. The smoother the surface of a dry coat, the longer it takes polyurethane to dry.
Film-forming substances of a matte poly form ripple on the surface of a coat. Mostly due to additives that increase the rate of drying and form varying points of tension on its surface.
It is the fastest-drying type of polyurethane topcoat. But the actual time difference is not that significant. On average, matte water-based polyurethane will dry faster than matte oil-based polyurethane.
Satin poly just has a little less of additives that form ripple on the surface of a coat. It will dry slightly longer than matte poly, but faster than semi-gloss or gloss types.
Semi-gloss polyurethane varnishes have the least amount of a “rippling agent” and they tend to dry longer than all of the types mentioned above.
Polyurethane with gloss sheen has the longest drying time. Quite unsurprisingly, it takes a bit more time for the film-forming substances to level out and form a nice and smooth surface.
The polyurethane of this type of sheen has no additives that make the surface ripple, so pay extra attention to the cleanness of the room where you put them down. Each spec or bubble will stand out on the finished surface.
Similar to paints and stains, polyurethane varnishes are sensible to ambient conditions while drying. Commonly considered sweet-spot is at:
- air temperature between 50 and 700 °F (10-200C);
- 50% of relative air humidity;
- sufficient airflow.
These conditions affect drying time, while curing occurs within the dry layer of poly and is less affected. Also, those are usual reference conditions for drying times on the packaging of a product.
Air temperature directly influences the rate of evaporation of a carrier liquid. The higher it is, the faster water or solvent leaves the fresh polyurethane coating.
The higher the relative air humidity, the fewer vapors can leave the fresh layer, hence hindering the drying process.
Airflow promotes drying by replacing air saturated by vapors with fresh air ready to accept more of them. But keep an eye on airborne debris that can ruin the fresh coat.
What should I do with polyurethane to dry it faster?
You can speed the drying by alternating ambient conditions by increasing temperature, decreasing humidity, and setting up additional ventilation. That’s the most straightforward answer to “How can I make polyurethane dry faster?”.
But try not to go overboard, as the coat may crack or not adhere to the surface if it will dry too fast.
Is polyurethane good for hardwood floors?
Actually, polyurethane wood floors are very durable. Especially in high-traffic areas and when the coat is fully cured. Some hardwood floors in public areas are coated with poly and show great results in resisting wear and tear. It is a universal coat for wood furniture and other wooden surfaces.
How long does it take to cure polyurethane?
The table below will provide reference values, but the actual drying speed will depend on the aforementioned factors.
|Oil-based polyurethane||Water-based polyurethane|
|Time before the next coat||6-8 hours||Up to 24 hours|
|Dry to touch||24 hours||48 hours and on|
|Complete curing||Up to 30 days||Up to 30 days|
If you aren’t on a tight schedule with your project, it is always better to wait for an additional hour or two to keep on the safe side.
But if you are in a hurry try to pick the fast-drying poly from the begging and provide conditions that will promote the drying.
How long to let polyurethane dry before applying another coat?
The time between coats is between 30 minutes for fast-drying water-based polyurethane and up to 24 hours for oil-based polyurethane varnishes. On average, the surface is ready for the second coat right after it stops feeling tacky to the touch.
How long does it take oil-based polyurethane to dry?
Oil-based polyurethane dries longer than water-based polyurethane. On average, it will feel dry to the touch after around 24 hours, but actual drying times will vary due to ambient conditions and a variety of factors mentioned above.
What to do if poly isn’t drying too long?
Reasons for extra long drying of polyurethane varnish are as follows (but not limited):
- a defective batch that made its way to a store shelf;
- poly is expired;
- not thorough enough stirring;
- natural oils of the wood are in the way;
- previous coat (stain, conditioner, hardening oil) hadn’t dried properly;
- ambient conditions are off (air is too cold or too humid).
After finding out what is wrong, you’ll have to reapply a coat or remake the piece entirely.
How to determine when poly is dry?
There are several stages of drying a poly. You can tell them apart by a touch test. When the surface of a coat is still a bit tacky, but not sticks on the skin, it means that drying is complete and curing has begun.
When the top layer of a coat is dry to the touch, but you can still feel it as a sort of skin that slides on top of an underlying layer, initial curing is still in progress.
So, when the coat had adhered to the surface, but you still leave a dent in it with your nail, then the initial curing is almost over. Additionally, you can evaluate the surface of a matte poly by looking at its shine.
Final words. Now you know how long does polyurethane take to dry
Calculating the actual drying time of a polyurethane varnish is tricky. But the truth is, you don’t have to be too precise. First of all, take a look at the packaging and adjust values according to your conditions, and you will know how long does polyurethane take to dry.
Furthermore, just put your hands on as many types of poly as possible, make reference boards, observe, and memorize. First-hand experience is the best way to learn how much time polyurethane takes to dry and how to become a pro woodworker.
My name is Alex Mashinsky
I am an enthusiastic woodworking hobbyist who created topwoodworkingtools.com to provide helpful information and advice to fellow woodworkers.
The goal of the website is to help readers make informed decisions about woodworking tools and materials, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that they achieve the best possible results from their projects.
My main focus is on offering accurate, honest, and well-reasoned opinions and advice to help readers choose the most suitable tools and materials for their particular needs.