Are you a carpenter, responsible husband, or DIY maker that wishes to organize a hearthside by using wood? Therefore, it requires using wood glue; are you aware of all its attributes in use? In today’s article, we are going to learn everything about wood glue options:
- What is wood glue?
- The different types of wood glue
- Wood glue dry
- How long does wood glue take to dry?
- Which components may affect a period of glue drying
- How faster is the process of glue consolidation, etc.
What’s more, we will also reveal the features of this type of product, compare it to the various wood glue statistics among producers/consumers and provide the answers to frequently asked questions. Forward reading the paragraphs to meet a dozen of invaluable and helpful information to become an all-pants about wood glue topic!
- 1 What is wood glue?
- 2 What are the types of wood glues?
- 3 How much time do glues need to solidify?
- 4 Which components may affect the solidifying period of wood glues?
- 5 How to make wood glue dry faster?
- 6 Final words and conclusion
- 7 FAQ
What is wood glue?
The history of glue starts its roots in the Middle Pleistocene era, which is about circa 200000 years ago. However, the rapid increment of wood glues tend was in the period of 1500-1700. Such world-famous furniture and cabinetmakers as Thomas Chippendale and Duncan Phyfe started using, popularizing, and patenting wood glue.
Nowadays, wood glue is an adhesive, which helps to bond wood firmly and reliably. It is often used in restoring antique furniture, paintings, and any other things for re-establishment which have wood fibers.
The main components of wood glues are chemicals of artificial origin. For instance, such synthetic as polyurethane. Nevertheless, there are also glues for wooden materials made from animal products. To read about types of wood glues, continue forwarding!
Tip. Moreover, you can read my guide about How long does polyurethane take to dry
What are the types of wood glues?
In the 21st century, thanks to the scientific process, there is an innumerable quantity of types of wood products. Its structure may contain man-made (EG, phenol-formaldehyde, or ultra-formaldehyde) as well as organic structure (inter alia the animal glue). However, the most popular types of wood glue are still:
- Polyurethane, etc.
To know more about each type of wood glue, and the interval of how long wood glue takes to dry, read the description blocks of this article below.
PVA wood glue
PVA glue is an invention of the last century that is also called “polyvinyl acetate polymer”. PVA wood glue is a water-based glue, which was discovered in 1921st in Germany. The first producing company of polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA wood glues) was “KURALON”.
Nowadays, one of the most famous PVA wood glue producers is Elmer’s wood glue, Titebond wood glue, and Gorilla glue. Such popularity among consumers of PVA glue was achieved by dint of priorities:
- Availability in local stores and an affordable price
- Non-destructive fume influence
- Stays flexible and doesn’t yellow after a durable period of time
Here are modified PVA wood glue variations, including colored (yellow glue). The fact that this wood glue is a modified PVA glue to a standard PVA craft glue; however, the first formula is more concentrated. This wood glue is vividly used among carpenters and woodworkers.
Cyanoacrylate wood glues or just CA glue is popular among consumers across the world due to their multi-functionality. You can use it for everything: glass, rubber, plastic, and, surely, wood.
It is also called super glue, instant glue, or crazy glue. The benefits of CA are:
- Excellent exactitude functions
- Clear and universal color
- Fast cure
- Magnificent holding characteristics
CA glue doesn’t have the best holding attributes; however, it’s stronger than PVA glues or hot hide glues. What’s more, it’s affordable and available in literally every shop or supermarket.
If you are acquainted with Gorilla glue or Elmer’s wood glue, you are acquainted with polyurethane glue. The main advantage of it is a tremendous instance. Surely, this effect you may achieve only if you comply with instructions. Other pros of polyurethane glues are:
- It doesn’t have an extra moisture content (we will talk about it a bit later)
- The conception of how it works depends on the chemical reaction to humidity (which makes the drying process faster)
- You can utilize it to glue the pieces as you wish (gluing then peacing/ peacing then gluing)
Tip. You can read my guide and learn more from the post How to remove polyurethane from wood.
Take into account that polyurethane glue is multi-purpose; you can use it on wood as well as on metals. What’s more, polyurethane wood glue is waterproof, so you can use it for bonding outside.
Tip. For example, you can learn more about How many coats of polyurethane on table.
Many woodworkers use this item owing to its usefulness and multi-functionality. To get above describe effects, you must abide by aforesaid directions (such as degreasing the surface before gluing).
From the name of this glue, you may guess about its origin. Hide glue, also named animal glue, is made of savage hides. On the global market, it is possible to find synthetic hide glue; however, it loses the benefits of the original variation.
The hide glue isn’t waterproof, it’s recommended to miss using it outside projects. Nevertheless, its formula has been tested for years, passed lots of trials, and proved, that it is absolutely organic, non-toxic, and doesn’t harm our planet.
Carpenters as well as DIY makers like hide glue: you can work comfortably, it’s low-cost, eco-friendly, and you don’t have to practice clamping. Titebond Hide Glue is most frequently chosen as an artificial among consumers on Earth.
Hot glue, or gun blue, is comparably new on the world market. This chemical is referred to as hot melt adhesives and is sold in a firm form of a stick. When the temperature 65⁰ – 180⁰С (149-356 degrees Fahrenheit) affects this stick, it starts fusing and becomes a liquid hide glue. Therefore, the product starts going through the gun nozzle.
Hot glue is extremely popular among DIY makers, however, carpenters and other woodworkers hold off it. The reason for such a step is thermal fragility. For instance, in making a sauna, hammam, and other steam rooms they can’t use sticks because of their poor heat resistance in order to prevent confusing situations.
Hot glue starts melting in conditions and environments, where the temperature range is over 65⁰C or 356 degrees Fahrenheit. So, in the situation of the steam rooms, where you have to bond surrounding wood it will be damaged by the high temperature.
Epoxy glue is a liquid adhesive that is the most popular among carpenters and other wood makers thanks to its decent benefits:
- Epoxy glues are waterproof
- It has a filler function
- Glues and makes CPD and CBG (a fabric for cheap furniture, that is made from secondary raw materials such as sawdust and wood pieces)
Such resin chemical provides a strong bond without fixing the elements by twisting screws, hammering nails, and other mechanical ways. It is also used as a wood filler for gaps and fixing chips.
Most epoxy glues are waterproof and heat-resistant; so you can use them outside and everywhere! They are also accessible in different formula variations; nevertheless, the most popular is still the resin-hardener combination.
The only con of epoxy glue is that after a period of time, it may change color and become yellow. However, it’s nothing compared to the aforesaid benefits and priorities and depends on the epoxy glue producer and quality.
How much time do glues need to solidify?
We have already familiarized ourselves with the most popular types of glue. Now, it is time to start revealing the usage methods and the period of glue drying. For each glue the interval variates, so, let’s observe: how long does wood glue take to dry.
PVA consolidation period
PVA wood glue dry time takes 24 hours to cure and solidify fully. For the first thirty minutes, you should keep clamps closed to fix the position of the wood pieces accurately. After 40-45 minutes of wood glue drying time, you are allowed to take off the clamps. The next 18-24 hours are curing the glue, and then you may start other operations with your product.
After the consolidation, polyvinyl acetate wood glue will harden. Bear in mind, that when the curing time is passed, it will be a bit problematic to separate the joint details and renovate a quality blend again.
Choose a PVA glue wisely; according to the wood structure, density, and other aspects. Remember about using clamps for about half an hour for a stronger bond.
CA glue bolstering
In contrast to the above-mentioned and dry-durable items, CA glue is unique. The two wooden details are getting blended toughly together in two seconds. After 2 minutes, you may attempt to complete another stage of production at your woodworking projects.
However, the aced carpenters assure that it takes about a day to cure the CA glue fully. Remember reading the instruction, where a total consolidation period is mentioned (most glues may have an interval under 24 hours). The precious fact about cyanoacrylate is that the stage of claiming is unnecessary.
Epoxy glue solidifying time
Epoxy glue is an adhesive liquid that is highly estimated among wood makers because of its formula. However, among other wood glues, epoxy takes the most durable interval to cure completely (about 24-72 hours). Additionally, it’s better to reinsure and be on the safe side, leaving the joint epoxy details for 10-12 hours longer.
Erstwhile this wood glue is bolstered, you will get a quality surface without chips and other defects. Surely, utilizing it is more complicated than using other glues; anyhow, it’s worth it, not every glue can give such an effect as this wood glue does.
Hide and hot glues strengthening
The concept of hiding glue (aliphatic resin wood glues) solidifying is very similar to other glues. When you join the details, clamp it for half an hour and clean the excess glue. Then, ensure that everything is unmoved, take off the clamps, and leave it; for complete curing, the glue dries for 20-24 hours.
So, you see that the solidifying of the hide glue is analogical to others. Nonetheless, beware, that you must isolate the surface from water in order to get high quality and stronger bond.
Speaking about the hot hide glue, the situation is different. The joining of two details with hot glue takes about 1 minute, you do not have to use clams and other devices like it. Independence of the vision consolidation in 1 minute, leave it to cure for 5 hours. Then, the item is ready for other manipulations and usage.
Which components may affect the solidifying period of wood glues?
We have already mentioned the periods in which wood glue dries. However, it doesn’t depend only on the glue specification factor. The conditions of the environment also affect the period of consolidation. Let’s look at it!
It is clear and evident even for a primary school student: the thinner layer of the glue, the smaller period it will take to consolidate. Hence, if you apply a denser overlay, it will take a more durable period to cure; even about 24 hours.
Speaking about the joining of some wood details, in such cases it’s perfect to use a thin glue layer utilizing clamps. Such devices help two make the blend of two surfaces stronger, and you won’t have to wait a lot for drying.
If the fulfillment of the chips and crevasses comes into play, you will have to wait a decent period for drying. What’s more, usually carpenters use epoxy glues as fillers; not only a dense layer of glue intervenes and impacts the time of drying, but it also depends on the features of epoxy glue. As we already know, it comes in 24-72 hours.
Having the intention to experience the fast-drying methods bears the aspect of thickness in mind. Don’t make a thick layer of wood glue if you wish to provide the woodwork as soon as possible; instead, produce a thin layer.
To get a quality and strong cure between the glued details, it is vital to have decent airflow. Each glue-curing conception is holding onto the evaporation of moisture from the surface. Without air, it will be hard for the glue to use its humid content.
If the airflow circulates, it gathers the molecules of water on the inside surface of the glue. The higher the air circulation, the faster molecules collect inside the glue, therefore, the faster glue dries. Remember about oxygen: the greater level of it is, the less harmful the effect impacts your breathing system and lungs.
A lack of airflow may consequence in the slowing of the cure. In optional cases it can prevent the project from damaging, however, it raises the negative impact on your organism.
The recommendation from experienced woodworkers is:
“During the period you are gluing something, open everything that is possible to upper the airflow. It’s also much better to work in the open area (if it’s possible)”.
A fan can also be utilized instead of the wind.
The wood type isn’t the crucial aspect of fast-drying; however, it also matters and impacts the consolidation period. Some types of wood may affect, especially water-based wood glue materials.
Remember about such tropical woods as teak, ebony, rosewood, mahogany, etc. may affect slower the drying process because of their high oil content. Most oily timbers are preventing the adhesive.
The best glue options for tropical timber
The most win-win glues for oil tropical wood are epoxy and polyurethane, rarely – PVA or cyanoacrylate. To get rid of high oil content, you may also try wood sanding.
Speaking about wood density, it has similar features to the long-term cure of tropic wood. For instance, oak, maple, and acacia have a high density. Carpenters advise avoiding water-based adhesives.
Above, trees have fewer porous areas, so the liquid (water-based) glues are blending and penetrate with wood much slower.
The moisture content of the wood
The humid problem usually comes after the wood had been attached. Pay attention: if the wood is damp or contains some water, it may slow the total cure period.
Wood glue adhesives dry through the evaporation process – the humid surface complicates the process. If the wood is already watered, the glue may not escape through the porous, making a low-quality and weak blending.
Hence, we notice to use of non-oily, kiln-dried wood and soft timber to prevent time-wasting and have a quality blending.
Tip. See my tips on How to dry wood fast for woodworking.
The humidity conditions around are very vital and impact a lot on glue consolidation. High-humidity conditions provide moisture and contiguous air, which impairs glue vaporization and slows the process down.
The higher the humidity is, the bigger level of moisture in the air. Consequently, it will prolong the cure. It has no possibility to support evaporation from glue and wood.
In humid conditions, the worst effectiveness has PVA glue because of its water-based structure. You should better use non-water-based wood glue, for instance, CA or polyurethane. If it’s possible, use the ventilation, conditioner, and space heater to let the air go and lower the percentage of humidity.
The temperature aspect is a vital factor in any drying process, including wood glue drying times. The practice shows, that most wood glues dry faster in environmental conditions, which purpose a high temperature and dry air. For its part, low temperature prolongs this interval (it is also about the humidity conditions, which this temperature provides).
Except for the acceleration in high-temperature conditions, it may also cause the melting of some types of glues (for instance, hot gun glue). However, most wood glues are temperature resistant and the melting is prevented.
The most appropriate temperature conditions for the most popular wood glues:
- CA/ cyanoacrylate: 5⁰-93⁰C (41⁰-200⁰F)
- Animal/ hide glue: 48⁰-65⁰C (120⁰- 150⁰F)
- Epoxy: 5⁰-35⁰C (41⁰-95⁰F)
- Polyurethane: 10⁰-35⁰C (50⁰-95⁰F)
- Polyvinil acetate/ PVA: 10⁰-25⁰C (50⁰-77⁰F)
Woodmakers recommend working with wood gluing in such temperature conditions.
Assembly aspects can modify the period of glue drying. The types of assemblies are:
- Closed assembly – a period of time when you are repositioning the bond until you have no opportunity to do it until wood glue drying
- Opened assembly – the amount of time you have in an interval when you apply wood glue to the point you already used it
Closed assembly or opened assembly can speed up or slow the process of consolidation.
Tip. Furthermore, you can read more about How to join two pieces of wood at 90 degrees.
A few wood types of glue have a bigger interval before they dry (for instance, epoxy or PVA and the CA instant glues). So, in such cases, you can work with them until they start drying and curing. Pay attention, that glues, which provide a closed assembly, have a short period of general solidifying.
How to make wood glue dry faster?
Let’s imagine, you have to complete a wooden project, but don’t have enough time to wait 24 hours for glue consolidation and start doing the next step. We know how to help you!
To make the solidifying process faster, carpenters and other woodworkers and wood makers start using the:
Sure, it’s much better to let the glue cure in a natural way without any accelerants. However, if it’s impossible, forward reading to learn the right technique of catalyzer methods!
You are already aware of the impact of high temperatures on the glue drying process and evaporation. The more heat is appended to the liquid, the more water will vaporize into the air. Consequently, the glue will solidify faster than you anticipated.
For the heat covering, you may use special devices (such as heat guns, and space heaters) and household gadgets (for instance, a hair dryer). Ensure that you covered the glue layer fully. Then, press the details and wait until it will be solidified.
Before we mentioned the brief about the importance of air circulation in the consolidation process. Now, we are going to tell about air as a catalyzer for solidifying.
More air – less time for consolidation
To decrease the period of wood glue drying, the most affordable way is to use the air as much as possible. Open the doors and windows; work outside, etc. You may also use ventilation. Do everything to get strong air circulation. Even such domestic beauty gadgets as a hairdryer can help you if you set it on low heat and strength.
This method is the best method for speeding up the epoxy wood glue cure. Just add a bit more hardener when you are mixing it.
This step helps the epoxy to solidify quicker. However, beware that if you are working with a ratio of such chemicals, you have less time for effort.
Final words and conclusion
In today’s article, we revealed the topic of wood glue and its features. Questions that we raised were:
- What are glue and its features?
- Types of wood glue and its characteristics
- The consolidation period for each type of glue
- Aspects that affect the period of consolidation
- How long does wood glue take to dry?
- How to make wood glue dry faster?
- Hardeners, air, and heat as the accelerants
We provided a detailed guide on using the wood glues, drying, and its features. We also told briefly about the different types of wood. Learned about tropical and dense timber, its usage, and the most appropriate glue for it. I hope that you found answers to your questions about the wood glue.
How can I get wood glue dry faster?
First of all, learn the features of used timber and the conditions in a working area. For instance, tropical and defense woof prolong the period of cure because of its oiliness and imporosity.
Try to high the temperature, and make a strong air circulation. For the epoxy glue, you may add more hardener (doing that, you have to work with materials faster to prevent solidifying in a working process).
How long should I leave wood glue clamped?
The average time for using clamps is the first 30 minutes. Then, you can start removing clamps and let the wood glue dry.
How strong is wood glue?
The wood glue strength ranges from 3000 to 4000 psi. So, it can cope with pressures between 3600-4000 pounds per square inch (that is stronger than a tree). The firmest wood glue among other wood glue is epoxy.
How fast does wood glue set?
This aspect depends on the type of glue. For example, the hot glue sets in the first 5 minutes, for its part, epoxy glue starts setting after 5 hours of usage and solidifies completely during 1-2 days.
How long does it take for wood glue to reach full strength?
This feature, like the previous one, also depends on the type of wood glue. The quickest at the full set is CA and hot hide glues. Polyurethane and PVA glues hide reach full strength in 24 hours, while epoxy glues completely cure only after 24-72 hours.
My name is Alex Mashinsky
I am an enthusiastic woodworking hobbyist who created topwoodworkingtools.com to provide helpful information and advice to fellow woodworkers.
The goal of the website is to help readers make informed decisions about woodworking tools and materials, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that they achieve the best possible results from their projects.
My main focus is on offering accurate, honest, and well-reasoned opinions and advice to help readers choose the most suitable tools and materials for their particular needs.